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              古玩城2021精品推薦第二期:乾隆青花釉里紅海水五龍紋梅瓶

              2021-09-09 18:39 來源:網絡

              中國制瓷跨越千年,但集原料、工藝、技法、燒造,至精至極之朝代,非清乾隆皇朝莫屬。它是中國制瓷王國的顛峰時代。這一期的官窯瓷器以其豐富多彩的品種和制作著稱于世,瓷藝精進,榷陶使者唐英殫心竭慮,集歷代名窯之大成,括中外良器之精萃,藉以御窯廠之能工巧匠,以瓷為胎,敷設彩釉,鑄就千古不遇之輝煌。其間既崇尚復古,亦勇于創新,所帶來的技術突破與藝術新姿采均在中國藝術史上寫下重要的一頁。誠如《陶雅》所稱:“至乾隆,則華縟極矣,精巧之致,幾于鬼斧神工。”

              Chinese porcelain has been made for thousands of years, but it is the Qianlong Dynasty of the Qing Dynasty that integrates raw materials, processes, techniques and firing. It is the peak of China's porcelain kingdom. The official kiln porcelain of this period is famous for its rich and colorful varieties and production. The porcelain art is advanced. Tang Ying, the messenger of pottery discussion, has devoted all his heart to collecting the achievements of famous kilns of previous dynasties, including the essence of good tools at home and abroad, so that the skilled craftsman of the imperial kiln, taking porcelain as the tire, lays colored glaze and casts an unprecedented brilliance. During this period, it not only advocates retro, but also has the courage to innovate. The technological breakthrough and new artistic style brought by it have written an important page in the history of Chinese art. As Tao Ya said: "to Qianlong, the Chinese red tape is extremely exquisite. It is almost uncanny."

               

              釉里紅,是指用銅的氧化物為著色劑配制的彩料,在坯體上(或先施以青白釉的坯胎土)描繪紋樣,再蓋一層青白釉,然后裝匣入窯,經1250℃~1280℃的強還原焰氣氛,使高價銅還原成低價銅,呈現嬌妍而沉著的紅色花紋。釉里紅有單獨裝飾的,但大多數與青花相結合在一起進行裝飾而稱為“青花釉里紅”。其特點既有青花的“幽靚雅到致,沉靜安定”的特色,又增添了釉里紅的渾厚壯麗,豐富了色彩效果,形成了高雅而又樸實的藝術風格。因此,青花釉里紅瓷成為我國珍貴的品種之一。

              Underglaze red refers to the color material prepared with copper oxide as colorant, depicting the pattern on the green body (or the green tire soil with green and white glaze first), then covering it with a layer of green and white glaze, and then putting it into the kiln. After a strong reducing flame atmosphere of 1250 ℃ ~ 1280 ℃, the high-priced copper is reduced to low-priced copper, showing a beautiful and calm red pattern. Underglaze red is decorated separately, but most of them are combined with blue and white for decoration, which is called "blue and white underglaze red". It has the characteristics of "quiet, beautiful, elegant, quiet and stable" of blue and white, and adds the richness and magnificence of underglaze red, enriches the color effect, and forms an elegant and simple artistic style. Therefore, blue and white underglaze red porcelain has become one of the precious varieties in China.

               

              青花釉里紅系創燒于六百三十多年前的元末,流行于明初。明清皆有燒造。青花釉里紅畫面,儼然是寓意深刻、最富民族特色的中國國畫。它把國畫與精美的瓷器相結合,其藝術價值顯然大為提高。在富于變化而又優美的景德鎮藝術瓷器造型上,在潔白的瓷胎表面,繪制精心設計的高雅國畫,青紅對比絢麗多姿,罩上玉質感很釉色美等四美于一器,再經過難于駕馭的火的藝術的洗禮。簡直成了火中鳳凰。這種巧奪天工的藝術珍品,在元代創制伊始,極為難得,只能作為帝王等貴族收藏欣賞,或作為國寶“賜贈”友邦。

              The blue and white underglaze red system was created and burned in the late Yuan Dynasty more than 630 years ago and was popular in the early Ming Dynasty. It was fired in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. The blue and white underglaze red picture seems to be a Chinese traditional painting with profound meaning and the most national characteristics. It combines traditional Chinese painting with exquisite porcelain, and its artistic value is obviously greatly improved. In the modeling of Jingdezhen artistic porcelain, which is rich in changes and beauty, carefully designed elegant traditional Chinese painting is drawn on the surface of the white porcelain body. The contrast between green and red is gorgeous. It is covered with jade, and the glaze color is beautiful. Then it is baptized by the art of fire, which is difficult to control. It's like a phoenix in the fire. At the beginning of its creation in the Yuan Dynasty, this exquisite art treasure was extremely rare. It can only be collected and appreciated by emperors and other nobles, or "given" to friends as a national treasure.

               

              乾隆青花釉里紅器以其青花的鮮艷,釉里紅呈色的純正而受世人所愛,且其燒造器型種類較多與遺留數量較多而使收藏者有更多機會來感受其制作的精美。常見器型有瓶、花觚、盆、盞托、壇、罐、鼻煙壺 、盤、攢盤、碗、筆筒、水盂等。青花色澤濃艷,釉里紅呈色穩定,相對而言較為淡雅,但不如雍正時期釉里紅呈色淡雅,紅色中常見有綠色苔點,亦十分美麗。其釉里紅呈色見有深淺不同的層次,深濃與淺淡相互照應,色調和諧統一,所繪花鳥和青葉紅花更近于寫意。除常見的白地青花釉里紅外,乾隆青花釉里紅器還見有豆青地青花釉里紅、天青地青花釉里紅、綠地青花釉里紅、天藍地青花釉里紅、黃地青花釉里紅、淺綠地青花釉里紅等,充分表現出乾隆青花釉里紅的品種豐富。無論是器型還是紋飾均較為豐富,以大瓶為多,或直接繪畫,或開光裝飾。紋飾有三友、松鹿、花果、龍紋、云蝠 、獅球、梅雀、三果、八仙以及題詩多見。

              Qianlong blue and white underglaze red ware is loved by the world because of its bright blue and white and pure underglaze red color. Moreover, there are many types of fired ware and a large number of left over objects, so that collectors have more opportunities to feel its exquisite production. Common types of utensils include bottles, flower goblets, pots, lamp holders, jars, cans, snuff bottles, plates, storage plates, bowls, penholders, water bowls, etc. The blue and white color is rich and colorful, and the underglaze red is stable. It is relatively elegant, but it is not as elegant as the underglaze red in the Yongzheng period. Green moss spots are common in the red, which is also very beautiful. The underglaze red color shows different levels of depth. The depth and lightness take care of each other, and the tone is harmonious and unified. The painted flowers and birds, green leaves and red flowers are closer to freehand brushwork. In addition to the common white ground blue and white underglaze infrared, Qianlong blue and white underglaze red ware can also be seen in bean green ground blue and white underglaze red, sky green ground blue and white underglaze red, sky blue ground blue and white underglaze red, yellow ground blue and white underglaze red, light green ground blue and white underglaze red, which fully shows the rich variety of Qianlong blue and white underglaze red. Both types of utensils and patterns are rich, mostly large bottles, or direct painting or lighting decoration. There are three friends, pine deer, flowers and fruits, dragon pattern, cloud bat, lion ball, plum Finch, three fruits, eight immortals and poems.

               

              此件乾隆青花釉里紅海水五龍紋梅瓶,乾隆年的宮廷精品,其體態豐盈穩健,瓷坯潔白細膩,采用唐英首創的高嶺土高配比的瓷土配方,加上工藝繁復的夯制,淘洗的過程,瓷胎更為緊密,從而使得瓷器物龐大而未有變形塌陷的優點,梅瓶通體施透明釉,純凈嬌嫩,明亮透徹,瓶身以青花繪云紋,交疊懸停,氣韻生動,在青花祥云紋的烘托下,五條以釉里紅繪畫的生龍騰然出現,龍首瞪目,沖發、長吻、利齒,龍身矯健盤旋,羽磷堅實繁密,指爪犀利,動感十足。瓶底再以青花繪海水紋,展示了蒼龍出沒于洶涌大海的場景,飛旋騰挪,氣宇軒昂,一派皇家氣息。青花與釉里紅的相結合,不但工藝更為繁復,燒造也更為困難,但不一為報,只求裝飾效果的精良,“不惜工本”可謂乾隆制瓷宗旨,在這件瓷器上充分展現在人們面前,無愧“歷代美瓷推乾窯”的美譽。

              This plum vase with blue and white glaze and red sea water five dragon pattern in Qianlong Dynasty is a palace boutique in Qianlong year. It is plump and stable, and the porcelain blank is white and delicate. It adopts the porcelain clay formula with high proportion of kaolin initiated by Tang Ying, and the porcelain body is more compact with the complicated process of tamping and washing, so that the porcelain object is large without deformation and collapse. The plum vase is covered with transparent glaze, pure and delicate, It is bright and thorough. The bottle body is painted with blue and white clouds, overlapping and hovering. It has a vivid charm. Against the background of blue and white auspicious clouds, five living dragons painted with underglaze red appear. The dragon's head is staring, with hair, long kisses and sharp teeth. The Dragon's body is vigorous and circling, with solid and dense feathers and phosphorus, sharp fingers and claws, and full of motion. The bottom of the bottle is painted with blue and white sea patterns, showing the scene of the black dragon haunting the turbulent sea, flying around, dignified and royal. The combination of blue and white and underglaze red not only makes the process more complicated, but also makes it more difficult to burn. However, it is not always a reward. It only seeks excellent decorative effects. "Sparing no cost" can be described as the purpose of Qianlong's porcelain making. It is fully displayed in front of people on this porcelain, worthy of the reputation of "pushing dry kiln for beautiful porcelain in previous dynasties".

               

              乾隆以后,中國瓷器燒造最輝煌的時代漸漸遠去了。嘉慶初期,乾隆以太上皇身份臨朝,一切與乾隆時期無二,到乾隆死去,進入清中期,嘉慶皇帝崇尚節儉,官窯生產也不斷縮減,青花釉里紅的燒造數量開始減少,工藝開始下降,胎體漸粗,釉汁漸稀,釉里紅色變暗。和世上的一切有著共同的命運,釉里紅,這種曾經輝煌一時的瓷器品種不可避免地衰落了。

              After Qianlong, the most glorious era of Chinese porcelain firing was gradually gone. In the early days of Jiaqing, Emperor Qianlong was the emperor on the ether. Everything was the same as that in the Qianlong period. When Qianlong died and entered the middle of the Qing Dynasty, Emperor Jiaqing advocated frugality, and the production of official kilns continued to shrink. The number of firing blue and white underglaze red began to decrease, the process began to decline, the carcass became thicker, the glaze juice became thinner, and the underglaze red became darker. Having a common destiny with everything in the world, underglaze red, a once brilliant porcelain variety, inevitably declined.

               

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